Can Leather Be Truly Eco-Friendly Or Sustainable?

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Envision a world where leather manufacturing, once linked to environmental degradation, transforms into a catalyst for social impact, ethical labor practices, and sustainable manufacturing practices. This evolution isn’t a distant dream—it’s unfolding now in the global leather industry!

Real leather, derived from animal hides, and a product of nature is more sustainable than ever acknowledged and outperforms its synthetic leather counterparts. 65% of animal leather comes from cows, 15% from sheep, 9% from goats, and 11% from pigs, all part of a large-scale production system.

Contrary to popular belief, synthetic alternatives have their own environmental problems and aren’t as green as they seem. Faux leather and vegan leather alternatives are commonly marketed as both vegan and sustainable but do have a negative impact on the environment.

However, the question remains: Are they truly a sustainable alternative, or do they merely look like leather?

Did you know these synthetic leather materials and vegan leather products can take up to 500 years to decompose in a landfill, releasing harmful microplastics and toxic chemicals as they break down, contributing to significant waste generation?

Meanwhile, real leather made from natural animal skin, a byproduct of the meat industry, is biodegradable, versatile, and plays a significant role in supporting local economies worldwide. The shift towards more sustainable practices in the leather industry has the potential to create new jobs, stimulate local economies, and promote sustainable development.

However, it’s important to note that this transition also presents challenges, such as the need for skills training to tan the leather.

So, is the future of sustainable and eco-friendly leather manufacturing already here? The answer, which might surprise you, is tied to key performance indicators that can be used to measure progress.

A New Chapter Of Sustainability In Leather

A New Chapter Of Sustainability In Leather



The natural leather industry, which plays a crucial role in sustainable fashion, automotive, furniture, and apparel industries, is undergoing a transformation toward sustainability. With a global trade value of approximately $150 billion per year, it holds significant importance on the world stage. However, it’s not just about the financial figures. The industry is making strides in adopting sustainable production methods and improving sustainability practices in the leather industry.

Yes, there was a time when the leather manufacturing process was in the spotlight for all the wrong reasons. Purported environmental degradation, solid waste production, water pollution, deforestation, and greenhouse gas emissions were some of the charges leveled against it. But that’s a story from the past.

Today, leather production is writing a new chapter. A chapter about sustainable practices, innovations in natural alternatives, and about change. It’s a story of an industry that’s not just responding to the demand for sustainability but actively embracing it.

And the results are promising. The industry is gradually shifting towards more sustainable leather production methods, such as the use of sustainable materials, eco-friendly tanning processes, and waste reduction and management.

But don’t just take our word for it. According to the Sustainable Leather Foundation, today’s technological and scientific innovations have made leather drastically less impactful on the earth and people, especially when compared to petroleum-made alternatives to leather.

In fact, modern leather manufacturing recycles more than 270 million cow hides and skins per year, saving landfills from over 7.5 million tons of waste annually!

So, the next time you see a leather product, remember this: it’s not just a product. It’s a testament to an industry’s commitment to sustainability.

And that’s a story worth telling.


The Role of Innovation and Technology In The Sustainability Of Leather

The Role of Innovation and Technology in Sustainable Leather


The landscape of the leather business is being reshaped by the forces of nature, innovation, and technology. It’s no longer just about crafting leather but doing so in a way that respects our planet. Biofabrication, green chemistry, digitalization, and automation are just a few of the groundbreaking methods being employed to lessen the environmental impact and open up new business avenues.

Researchers at Tufts University have engineered a biodegradable material for 3D printing that mimics leather, utilizing silk as its base component. Another company, VitroLabs, uses tissue engineering techniques to grow leather from cells in the laboratory. Modern Meadow has also created a process to grow leather or biofabricated leather materials shaped into finished products using 3D printing.

These cutting-edge technologies and processes are becoming increasingly vital for sustainable leather production; they’re the key to ensuring the long-term sustainability of the leather industry and minimizing its environmental footprint.

Technology plays a crucial role in the production of sustainable leather, offering solutions to reduce the industry’s environmental impact while creating new business opportunities, including the use of leather chemicals that are less harmful to the environment.

Examples of innovative technologies and processes include biofabrication, green chemistry, digitalization, and automation, all of which contribute to more sustainable and environmentally friendly leather manufacturing.

As the industry continues to evolve, the adoption of these innovative technologies and processes will become increasingly important in ensuring the leather industry’s long-term sustainability and reducing its environmental footprint.

The Importance Of Traceability and Transparency in the Leather Supply Chain

“Traceability and transparency in the supply chain are crucial for advancing sustainability. This includes:

  • Ensuring ethical sourcing
  • Adhering to certifications and standards
  • Raising consumer awareness”

Ensuring ethical sourcing, adhering to certification and standards, and raising consumer awareness all contribute to greater transparency and traceability throughout the supply chain. Much of the industry is racing to build these traceability systems to cover the incoming legislation from the EU, such as Due Diligence legislation for Deforestation. NY has some legislation in process on the supply chain for the fashion industry – and the EU also has some green claims legislation that may also affect global organizations if passed.

The Ethical Path: Sourcing with Integrity

Ethical sourcing is a cornerstone of the industry that uses sustainable practices to produce leather. It’s about tracing the journey of leather from the farm to the factory, fostering innovation and sustainable practices, and advocating for the use of by-products.

Ethical sourcing enables the leather industry to pursue social sustainability, support local communities, combat climate change, reduce emissions, and promote animal welfare.

Upholding Standards: The Role of Certification in Sustainability

Certification and standards play a significant role in ensuring the sustainability of leather manufacturing, making a significant impact on the industry. By adhering to these standards, leather manufacturers can demonstrate their commitment to environmental and social responsibility while also providing customers with confidence in the sustainability of the leather products they purchase.

These standards are essential for ensuring that leather production is conducted responsibly and sustainably and adhering to environmental compliance. They provide assurance that the leather is produced in a way that is safe for both the environment and the people involved in the production process. Additionally, they help to ensure that the leather is of the highest quality and will last. The Leather Working Group pioneered the environmental audit for tanneries supporting the fashion industry. Today, certifications across environmental, social, and governance audits exist across all sectors. Some of the leading leather certifications that exist today are Sustainable Leather Foundation, Leather Working Group, ISO Standards, ICEC, and OEKO-TEX.

The Power of the Consumer: Driving Sustainable Leather Production

Today’s consumers, more informed, socially responsible, and concerned about the environmental and ethical concerns of their purchases, are driving the industry’s shift towards using sustainable practices in the production of leather.

Consumer awareness of responsible manufacturing is a powerful force in driving sustainable leather production as a means to measure the sustainability of natural leather. By understanding concerns related to leather production’s environmental and ethical implications, consumers can make informed decisions when purchasing leather products and support companies that prioritize sustainable and ethical practices.

As consumer demand for sustainable leather products grows, the industry will be motivated to adopt more sustainable practices, ultimately leading to a more eco-friendly and ethical leather industry. This shift is largely driven by the growing trend of conscious consumption across the fashion industry, with consumers increasingly seeking out brands that align with their values.

Circular Economy and The Life Cycle of Leather

Circular Economy and The Life Cycle of Leather Industry


The circular economy is an economic system that seeks to reduce waste and promote the continual use of resources via waste management. Within the leather industry, efforts have been made to incorporate circular economy practices such as recycling and reusing waste materials and implementing cleaner production methods to reduce waste and maximize efficiency.

Upcycling and recycling, for example, involve the reuse of materials and resources in the leather industry. By transforming existing materials into something of higher value or breaking down materials into their component parts for reuse, the industry can reduce waste and promote sustainability.

Extended producer responsibility (EPR), another aspect of the circular economy, mandates producers to assume responsibility for the environmental effects of their products across their entire life cycle, from design and production to utilization and disposal. By enforcing EPR, the leather industry can further promote sustainability and reduce its environmental impact.

Upcycling and Recycling

Upcycling and recycling in the leather industry involve the reuse and repurposing of discarded leather offcuts and scraps to create products of greater value than the originals. This can include the production of new furniture, shoes, and garments from scraps throughout the fashion industry, which not only reduces waste but also promotes resource efficiency and sustainable leather production.

Extended Producer Responsibility

In the leather industry, extended producer responsibility (EPR) mandates manufacturers to assume responsibility for the eventual disposal of their products, a practice that aligns with environmental regulations. EPR serves as an incentive for manufacturers to design products that are simpler to recycle and dispose of and to transfer some of the environmental costs related to leather production to the producers.

This, in turn, helps promote sustainability and reduce waste in the leather industry.

Collaborative Consumption

While not frequently discussed, collaborative consumption in the sustainable leather fashion industry could be another aspect of the circular economy that can help reduce waste and minimize the environmental impact due to the production of leather. By fostering collaboration between producers, consumers, and policymakers, a culture of transparency and accountability can be established, leading to the adoption of more sustainable practices and reducing the leather industry’s environmental impact.

This could include initiatives such as encouraging the reuse or upcycling of leather products, promoting the use of sustainable materials, and incentivizing the use of renewable energy sources. By taking these steps, the leather industry can become more sustainable and reduce its environmental footprint.

The Role of Consumers in Driving Sustainable Leather


The Role of Consumers in Driving Sustainable Leather

Consumers have a pivotal role to play in promoting the production of ethically sourced leather, a process that involves using sustainable practices. By making informed choices when purchasing leather products, consumers can drive demand for responsible leather and support companies that prioritize ethical and sustainable practices. Consumers can also influence the leather industry towards sustainability through their support of the slow fashion movement and their commitment to educating themselves about the industry.

As consumer awareness of the environmental and ethical implications of leather production continues to grow, the industry is likely to face increasing pressure to adopt more sustainable practices, ultimately leading to a more eco-friendly and ethical leather industry.

Conscious Consumption

Conscious consumption in the leather industry involves being aware of the environmental and social implications of the leather products we purchase, including leather goods that align with our values and are produced in a socially responsible manner. By practicing conscious consumption, consumers can help drive the demand for sustainable leather and encourage companies to adopt more sustainable and ethical practices in their production processes.

Slow Fashion Movement

The slow fashion movement in the leather industry emphasizes the importance of sustainable and ethical practices in producing and consuming leather goods, including leather products that are made with care and have a lesser environmental impact.

By advocating for the reduction of overproduction and pollution, the slow fashion movement aims to address the environmental and social issues related to the leather industry, ultimately leading to a more sustainable and ethical industry.

Educating Consumers

Educating consumers about sustainable leather, including the environmental and ethical implications related to sustainable practices, is essential to enable them to make informed decisions when purchasing leather products.

Additionally, increasing consumer awareness of sustainable leather can encourage companies to invest in sustainable practices by creating a market for sustainable leather products.

To learn more about how consumers can drive sustainable leather production, visit the Leather Hub for Consumers on the Sustainable Leather Foundation website.

Regulations and Standards for Sustainable Leather


Regulations and Standards for Sustainable Leather

Government regulations and policies play a crucial role in promoting sustainability in the leather industry, including the implementation of environmental management systems. They set the required quality standards the industry must adhere to and can incentivize adopting more sustainable practices.

For example, the European Union’s upcoming Deforestation Due Diligence law will require leather imported into the EU to have supply chain traceability showing it does not contribute to deforestation.  The European Union’s REACH regulations and ZDHC’s Roadmap to Zero,  restrict the use of certain hazardous substances in the leather production process. These include tanning chemicals that can be harmful to the environment and public health. The state of California also has the Safer Consumer Products Regulations which provide a process to evaluate chemicals used in products like leather and restrict high-risk substances. Such regulations protect the environment and public health and drive innovation in the industry as manufacturers seek safer alternatives.

Certification programs, such as the Leather Working Group and Sustainable Leather Foundation, play a crucial role in promoting sustainable practices in the leather industry by setting standards for the environmental and social performance of leather manufacturing processes that manufacturers must adhere to. This includes ensuring fair labor practices. By complying with these standards and regulations, the leather industry can demonstrate its commitment to sustainability and reduce its environmental footprint.


Biofabrication in the leather industry is the process of creating leather using biological materials, such as collagen grown from yeast in a lab, instead of traditional methods that involve animal hides. This sustainable animal-free process is being viewed as a potential future of leather creation.

As research and development progress, the quality and cost-effectiveness of biofabrication will continue to improve, making it a viable option for the leather industry.

Green Chemistry

Green chemistry in the leather industry refers to the utilization of environmentally friendly approaches to tanning processes, such as chrome-free tanning based on an unnatural d-AA-assisted tanning process and the development of renewable chemicals used in the tanning and non-toxic tanning agents. New approaches, such as unnatural d-AA-assisted tanning, are not free from concern, as they still utilize aldehydes in their chemistry, but their innovative approach shows promise that the leather industry can and will continue to evolve sustainably.

By adopting green chemistry principles, the leather industry can minimize the use of hazardous chemicals and reduce its environmental impact.

Digitalization and Automation

Digitalization and automation in the leather industry refer to the utilization of technology and machinery to optimize and streamline the processes involved in leather production. This includes the implementation of software, sensors, robots, and other digital tools to monitor and control the different stages of the production process.

The intention is to generate high-quality leather products at scale while increasing traceability, transparency, and productivity.

The Evolution Towards Sustainable Leather

The Evolution Towards Sustainable Leather


In a way that mirrors the shift to organic cotton, the sector that produces leather is also plotting a new trajectory towards keeping leather sustainable. The leather processing sector is pivoting towards more sustainable methods as the world becomes increasingly conscious of environmental and ethical implications.

Ethically sourced leather, often referred to as the name suggests ‘sustainable leather alternatives,’ is crafted using eco-friendly tanning processes, efficient use of resources, and waste reduction and management strategies. This approach not only mitigates its environmental impact but also conserves resources, promotes animal welfare, and aligns with consumer demand for more responsible and ethical products.

Are Animals Killed to Make Leather?

Contrary to widespread perception, animals are not killed to produce leather. In fact, 99% of the world’s leather produced comes from animals raised for food, making leather a by-product of the meat industry. This process of using leftover animal hides for leather is part of a highly sustainable process.

According to industry sources, the hide of the animal accounts for slightly above 1% of the entire value of the animal. It would not be practical to kill an animal just to produce a product that accounts for such a small percentage of the animal’s value. As long as consumers eat meat, there will be leftover hides. These hides can either be wasted and thrown into a landfill, or they can be used to make beautiful products such as leather car seats, furniture, shoes, handbags, purses, wallets, and so much more!

Modern leather manufacturing actually recycles more than 270 million cow hides per year, saving landfills from over 7.5 million tons of waste annually! Leather honors the life of the animal by ensuring the hide does not go to waste.”

What is Sustainable Leather?

Ethically sourced sustainable leather emerges from environmentally friendly tanning processes, efficient use of resources, and effective management of leather waste. The potential to lessen the environmental impact of leather production, conserve resources, improve animal welfare, and deliver sustainable and ethical products to consumers underscores the importance of sustainability in the leather industry.

Pioneering Sustainable Leather Alternatives- The Solution to the Problem?

A range of sustainable alternatives to conventional leather, including leather substitutes with unique production processes, benefits, and challenges, have surfaced. These alternatives not only reduce the industry’s dependence on animal hides but also offer the potential for more “environmentally friendly” leather production.

For instance, pineapple leather, also known as Piñatex, is made from pineapple leaf fibers, offering an animal-free and low environmental impact alternative. Mylo mushroom leather, derived from mycelium, the root structure of mushrooms, is another innovative alternative that is biodegradable and doesn’t require the extensive land use associated with traditional leather. Desserto, a leather alternative made from cactus, is not only sustainable but also highly durable.

Additionally, lab-grown leather, produced through biofabrication processes, is emerging as a promising alternative, though it’s still in the early stages of development.

These alternatives provide a plant-based option for those seeking to make an “environmentally friendly” choice. Comparative life cycle analyses (LCA) determining the most sustainable material amongst traditional leather, faux leather, and plant-based alternatives have not been completed to date. However, global organizations such as Textile Exchange and the Leather Working Group (LWG) have launched LCA projects to investigate such comparisons.

While these alternatives provide promising eco-friendly options, comprehensive life cycle analyses comparing their sustainability impacts to traditional leather manufacturing are still limited. Initial research indicates some plant-based leathers may have higher greenhouse gas emissions due to land usage requirements. More data through industrial-scale studies is needed to conclusively determine the optimal materials and processes from a sustainability perspective.

Embracing Eco-Friendly Tanning Processes

Eco-friendly tanning processes, like vegetable tanning and enzyme-based methods, may provide a greener sustainable tanning alternative to traditional chrome tanning (chromium tanning). These processes minimize the use of hazardous chemicals, curtail water pollution and carbon emissions, and address the environmental concerns associated with traditional natural leather production.

Chromium tanning has eco-friendly benefits too. It is so efficient at transforming raw hides into leather that it uses less chemicals, water, and energy throughout the entire leather process. Chromium also has the benefit of being recycled and utilized multiple times before disposal.

Championing Resource Efficiency

Championing resource efficiency in the leather industry involves the optimal use of raw materials, energy, and water during the production of leather. This strategy aims to reduce waste and greenhouse gases and repurpose waste as a resource. By prioritizing resource efficiency, sustainable leather production can help lessen the industry’s environmental footprint and promote circular economy principles.

Advancing Waste Reduction and Management

Strategies for waste reduction and management in sustainable leather production include implementing cleaner methods to reduce the amount of water and maximize efficiency. These waste management practices can help the industry move towards a more eco-friendly future by effectively reducing its environmental impact.

The Future of Sustainable Leather

The Future of Sustainable Leather


The future of manufacturing sustainable leather will hinge on its significant impact on the environment, economy, and society, with consumers playing a key role in driving the industry forward. As awareness of the environmental and ethical implications of traditional leather production grows, the industry is shifting towards more sustainable leather production methods, such as the use of sustainable materials, eco-friendly tanning processes, and waste reduction and management.

The demand for sustainable materials also presents potential new revenue opportunities. By proactively adopting ethical and eco-friendly practices, innovative leather manufacturers can charge premium prices and gain a competitive advantage with changing consumer preferences and upcoming regulations. The investment required initially is expected to deliver returns through higher profit margins in the near future.

Looking ahead, the future of the leather industry lies in its ability to balance economic viability with environmental responsibility and ethical considerations. As the industry continues to innovate and evolve, sustainability will remain a key focus, shaping the future of leather production and consumption.

By embracing sustainable alternatives, the leather industry can work towards a more sustainable future. As consumer demand for sustainable leather products grows, the industry will be motivated to adopt more sustainable practices, ultimately leading to a more eco-friendly and ethical leather industry. Collectively, consumers can make a big impact by simply using their purchasing power to demand more sustainable choices throughout the fashion industry, automotive sector, and interior design.

The Impact of Sustainable Leather on the Environment

The production of sustainable leather benefits the environment by decreasing the use of water, energy, and chemicals in the process, a significant step towards greater environmental sustainability. Additionally, it reduces the amount of waste generated and safeguards animal welfare.

By focusing on sustainable leather production, the industry can work towards reducing its ecological footprint and promoting a more sustainable future.

Final Thoughts…

As we’ve explored, the leather manufacturing sector is at a crucial turning point in its quest for sustainability. Through the adoption of eco-friendly tanning processes used in leather, resource efficiency, waste reduction and management, and technological innovation, the sector can pave the way for a more sustainable and ethical future. Consumers play a vital role in driving this change by making informed choices and supporting brands that prioritize sustainable human and animal ethical practices. Together, we can work towards a better quality of life, a more eco-friendly and responsible leather industry that benefits the environment and helps reduce pollution and society. Let’s continue to educate ourselves with socially responsible practices and make choices that support this important shift.

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